(Converted to html from Lippy, Charles H. Bibliography of Religion in the South. Macon GA: Mercer University Press, 1985. Used with permission of Mercer University Press)
THE FRENZIED EXCITEMENT of nineteenth-century frontier revivalism not only helped to imprint the evangelical style on much of Southern religion, but also led to the emergence of an interest in returning to the practices of primitive Christianity. Both commonsense rationalists and emotional revivalists sought to return to a presumably more pure Christian practice untainted by the accretions of time that had corrupted authentic Christianity. While this restorationist impulse attracted many campmeeting advocates, including Barton W. Stone, in time it coalesced around Alexander Campbell (1788-1866). Restorationists discarded denominational labels at first as signs of division within the one church, preferring to call themselves simply "Christians." In time, however, the followers of Alexander Campbell grew into one of the first indigenous denominations in the United States, the Disciples of Christ or the Christian Church.
As the movement grew, it enlarged its vision to include a conviction that American society itself could be transformed into a culture replicating the pure simplicity of New Testament Christian communities even as it extended its following into both the North and the South. For many years Campbell maintained an unofficial headquarters in Bethany, West Virginia. As with other groups, the sectional divisions over slavery brought tension to the movement, which combined with disagreement over religious practices (such as the use of musical instruments in worship, the support of ecumenical missionary societies, and the like) to split the developing denomination in two by 1906,
276 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELIGION IN THE SOUTH
though for all practical purposes the emerging schism was obvious at least two decades earlier. The more "conservative" group adopted the name Churches of Christ and still maintains its base of strength in the South. By the time of the formal division, it was also clear that the Disciples of Christ had come to place more emphasis on ecumenical and cooperative ventures than on restorationist principles. Hence the restorationist impulse has been more closely associated with the Churches of Christ as the twentieth century progressed. Differences regarding methods of biblical interpretation also entered into the controversy. Later internal disputes over requiring baptism by immersion for admission into fellowship led the more adamant proimmersion party of the Disciples in 1927 to become popularly known as the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ, though allied congregations have eschewed denominational structures and still regard themselves more as a federation of independent congregations.
A significant body of literature has appraised the history and development of these groups and their leaders, whose stories are intertwined for nearly a century and often treated together. For many years, the work of church historian Winfred Ernest Garrison dominated the field. His early study, Alexander Campbell's Theology: Its Sources and Setting (10), attempted to locate the movement's ideology within the broader theological tradition as well as within the American context of frontier revivalism. Garrison's conviction that the religious style of the frontier was essential to understanding the contours of the Campbellite thrust formed the thesis of his Religion Follows the Frontier: A History of the Disciples of Christ (13), while its corollary, the specifically American context that gave birth to the movement, is developed in his An American Religious Movement: A Brief History of the Disciples of Christ (11). His most synoptic study was coauthored with A. T. DeGroot: The Disciples of Christ: A History (12). But Garrison's work, as others of the "church history" genre, is hardly critical, representing the "institutional triumphalism" school of Disciples history, although it is grounded in traditional historical method. More recently, William Tucker and Lester G. McAllister, Journey in Faith: A History of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) (43) has become the basic Disciples denominational history. A more popular study, lacking rigorous analysis, is Louis Cochran and Bess White Cochran, Captives of the Word (6).
The standard denominational history for the Churches of Christ is the three volume work of Earl Irvin West, Search for the Ancient Order (46). West works from an "issues and answers" perspective, but does not bring critical analysis to his study. Different in approach is William S. Banowsky, The Mirror of a Movement (4), which looks at themes characterizing the more conservative Churches of Christ and vignettes in that group's history as they have been articulated through a recurring lecture series at the denomination's
277 CAMPBELLITE AND RESTORATIONIST TRADITIONS
Abilene Christian College (now University). A recent comparison of differences in ideological styles between the Churches of Christ and the Disciples of Christ is F. Maurice Ethridge and Joe R. Feagin, "Varieties of 'Fundamentalism': A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis of Two Protestant Denominations" (8), based on a 1972 study of Texas congregations. For the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ, or Independent Christian Churches, see James DeForest Murch, Christians Only (36).
By far the most penetrating portrayal of the Disciples and Churches of Christ, particularly before the formal separation in 1906, is found in the work of David Edwin Harrell, Jr. Harrell, a member of the "noncooperation" wing of the Churches of Christ, leaves behind all traces of the filiopietism that marks most studies of denominations written by adherents and also the simple chronicling of names, dates, and events characteristic of most traditional denominational histories written by scholars, though Harrell has mastered such "facts." Aware of tenets advanced by sociologists of knowledge concerning how ideas are absorbed and transformed into systems for understanding the whole of empirical reality, Harrell is also keenly sensitive to the way cultural and religious forces interact and mutually influence each other. Harrell's two volumes on the Disciples of Christ (which include coverage of the tensions that eventuated in the emergence of the separate Churches of Christ), Quest for a Christian America: The Disciples of Christ and American Society to 1866 (18) and The Social Sources of Division in the Disciples of Christ, 1865-1900 (22), unravel precisely how a religious world view becomes a way of constructing social reality, which in turn becomes a blueprint for society and social behavior. In several articles, Harrell has treated specific themes, some of which are also covered in his monographs: "The Significance of Social Forces in Disciples History" (21), "From Consent to Dissent: The Emergence of the Churches of Christ in America" (17). "The Sectional Pattern: The Divisive Impact of Slavery on the Disciples of Christ" (20), "The Sectional Origins of the Churches of Christ" (19), "The Disciples of Christ and Social Forces in Tennessee, 1865-1900" (62), and "The Agrarian Myth and the Disciples of Christ in the Nineteenth Century" (16). The Harrell corpus remains a model for a solid, scholarly, and insightful approach to denominational studies.
The differences of opinion over biblical criticism that were part of the schism between the Disciples and the Churches of Christ come into focus in Anthony L. Ash, "Attitudes Toward the Higher Criticism of the Old Testament Among the Disciples of Christ, 1850-1905" (1). Ash has published a series of four articles in Restoration Quarterly based on this dissertation (2). Numerous other works have attempted to identify other ideas, ranging from the presumed isolation of churches in the South during the era of the Civil War to the belief that restorationism inherently breeds division, as the fundamental cause of division, though none has been successful in making a
278 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELIGION IN THE SOUTH
convincing case. Representative of studies of this ilk are Arthur V. Murrell, "The Effects of Exclusivism in the Separation of the Churches of Christ from the Christian Church" (37), and Leroy Garrett, The Stone-Campbell Movement: An Anecdotal History of Three Churches (9).
Numerous works treat the Campbellite-Restorationist tradition along state lines, though most of these are semipopular in style and avoid sharp critical analysis. Among more recent studies in this genre are Herman A. Norton, Tennessee Christians: A History of the Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ) in Tennessee (72), and Wilbur H. Cramblet, The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in West Virginia: A History of Its Co-Operative Work. (53). H. Jackson Darst explores early and mid-nineteenth-century Campbellite developments in Virginia in Ante-Bellum Virginia Disciples: An Account of the Emergence and Early Development of the Disciples of Christ in Virginia (55), while Carter E. Boren traces a parallel story for Texas in his Religion on the Texas Frontier (49). Charles C. Ware has written several short monographs of a popular sort on Campbellite history in Carolinas, including histories of three individual North Carolina Disciples of Christ churches (79, 80,82). His two more synoptic studies are the now dated North Carolina Disciples of Christ: A History of Their Rise and Progress, and of Their Contributions to Their General Brotherhood (81), which appeared in 1927, and South Carolina Disciples of Christ: A History (83). William J. Barber, The Disciples' Assemblies of Eastern North Carolina (48), is notable for its inclusion of the denomination's work, albeit limited, among its black adherents. On the coming of the Disciples to Oklahoma, see Stephen J. England, Oklahoma Christians: A History of Christian Churches and of the Start of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in Oklahoma (57). An important study for the Churches of Christ is William Woodson, Standing for Their Faith: A History of Churches of Christ in Tennessee, 1900-1950 (87). Woodson's study, an outgrowth of a doctoral dissertation, appreciatively but objectively chronicles the denomination's development in the state that was of strategic importance in the evolution of the Churches of Christ, paying particular attention to the emergence of a distinctive denominational identity.
The standard biography of Disciples founder Alexander Campbell remains Robert Richardson's two-volume Memoirs of Alexander Campbell (108), published more than a century ago. Most later biographers have relied heavily on Richardson's work. More recently Campbell's life and thought have received attention in several articles by John F. Morrison that deserve wider circulation than they have witnessed to date: "A Rational Voice Crying in an Emotional Wilderness" (104), "The Centrality of the Bible to Alexander Campbell's Life and Thought" (103), "Alexander Campbell: Moral Educator of the Middle Frontier" (102), and "Alexander Campbell: Freedom Fighter of the Middle Frontier" (101). Perry E. Gresham, ea., The Sage of
279 CAMPBELLITE AND RESTORATIONIST TRADITIONS
Bethany (93) contains essays by several prominent historians, including Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., and Roland Bainton. Also valuable in delineating Campbell's understanding of the nation and his vision of America is Harold L. Lunger, The Political Ethics of Alexander Campbell (98). On this subject for the Churches of Christ, see Royce L. Money, "Church-State Relations in the Churches of Christ since 1945: A Study in Religion and Politics" (32), which emphasizes the role of anti-Catholicism and anti-Communism in determining this denomination's position on church-state issues. Views on other social, ethical, and theological issues advanced by Campbell and by the denominations that have evolved from his teaching are the subject of several works identified in chapters 4, 18, 19, 20, and 21.
A vital influence on Alexander Campbell and on the spirit of ecumenicity associated with Campbell and the Disciples was his father, Thomas Campbell. Alexander Campbell, ea., Memoirs of Elder Thomas Campbell, Together with a Brief Memoir of Mrs. Jane Campbell (90), remains fundamental because of its inclusion of important primary material on both father and son. Two later biographies also merit mention: William H. Hanna, Thomas Campbell: Seceder and Christian Union Advocate (94); and Lester G. McAllister, Thomas Campbell: Man of the Book (99).
Two individuals prominent in the early growth of the Disciples who later exerted strong leadership in the conservative wing of the denomination that became the Churches of Christ were Tolbert Fanning (1810-74) and David Lipscomb (1831- 1917). Neither has been the subject of a critical biography. James R. Wilburn, The Hazard of the Die: Tolbert Fanning and the Restoration Movement (116), is the best study to date of this major antebellum Disciples evangelist and critic of Disciples involvement in missionary societies. Similar, popularly written appreciations of Lipscomb, who was baptized by Fanning and had a long tenure as editor of the Gospel Advocate, are Robert E. Hooper, Crying in the Wilderness: A Biography of David Lipscomb (95), and Earl West, Life and Times of David Lipscomb (114). Also see John L. Robinson, David Lipscomb: Journalist in Texas, 1872 (109).
The bibliography that follows identifies first denominational and topical studies that deal with either the Disciples of Christ or the Churches of Christ or both. Studies that focus on the Campbellite-Restorationist tradition in individual Southern states or communities follow. The final section lists biographical or autobiographical studies of individuals affiliated with either or both groups. Also important is Restoration Quarterly, a journal that contains articles of both historical and contemporary interest for this tradition. Sometimes useful for historical studies is Discipliana, the publication of the Disciples of Christ Historical Society in Nashville.
I. THE CAMPBELLITE AND RESTORATIONIST TRADITIONS IN THE SOUTH: GENERAL AND TOPICAL STUDIES
(1) Ash, Anthony L.
"Attitudes Toward the Higher Criticism of the Old Testament
(2) __________. "Old
Testament Studies in the Restoration Movement." Restoration
(3) Bailey, Fred A. "The
Status of Women in the Disciples of Christ Movement,
(4) Banowsky, William S. The
Mirror of a Movement: Churches of Christ as Seen Through
(5) Blakemore, W. B., ed. The
Renewal of Church: The Panel Reports. 3 vols. St. Louis:
(6) Cochran, Louis, and Bess
White Cochran. Captives of the Word. Garden City:
(7) Ethridge, F. Maurice.
"Sect-Denominational Evolution: A Dialectical Model. of
(8) __________, and Joe R.
Feagin. "Varieties of 'Fundamentalism': A Conceptual and
(9) Garrett, Leroy. The
Stone-Campbell Movement: An Anecdotal History of Three
(10) Garrison, Winfred E. Alexander
Campbell's Theology: Its Sources and Historical Setting.
(11) __________. An American
Religious Movement: A Brief History of the Disciples of
(12) __________, and A. T.
DeGroot. The Disciples of Christ: A History. St. Louis:
(13) __________. Religion
Follows the Frontier: A History of the Disciples of Christ. New
(14) Gifford, Carey J.
"Space and Time as Religious Symbols in Ante-Bellum
(15) Halley, Homer. Attitudes
and Consequences in the Restoration Movement. Los Angeles:
(16) Harrell, David E., Jr.
"The Agrarian Myth and the Disciples of Christ in the
281 CAMPBELLITE AND RESTORATIONIST TRADITIONS
(17) __________. "From
Consent to Dissent: The Emergence of the Churches of Christ in
(18) __________. Quest for a
Christian America: The Disciples of Christ and American
(19) __________. "The
Sectional Origins of the Churches of Christ." Journal of
(20) __________. "The
Sectional Pattern: The Divisive Impact of Slavery on the
(21) __________. "The
Significance of Social Forces in Disciples History. " Integrity
(22) __________. The Social
Sources of Division in the Disciples of Christ, 1865-1900.
(23) Hatch, Nathan O. "The
Christian Movement and the Demand for a Theology of the
(24) Hensley, Carl W.
"Rhetorical Vision and the Persuasion of a Historical
(25) Holland, Harold E.
"Religious Periodicals in the Development of Nashville,
Tennessee as a
(26) Hughes, Richard T.
"Civil Religion, the Theology of the Republic, and the Free
(27) __________. "A
Comparison of the Restitution Motifs of the Campbells (1809-1830)
(28) __________. "From Civil
Dissent to Civil Religionand Beyond." Religion in
(29) __________. "From
Primitive Church to Civil Religion: The Millennial Odyssey of
(30) Humble, B. J. The Story
of the Restoration. Austin: Firm Foundation Publishing House,
(31) Major, James B. "The
Role of Periodicals in the Development of the Disciples of
(32) Money, Royce L.
"Church-State Relations in the Churches of Christ since
1945: A Study in
(33) Moore, W. T. A
Comprehensive History of the Disciples of Christ. New York:
(34) Moorhouse, William M.
"The Restoration Movement: The Rhetoric of Jacksonian
282 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELIGION IN THE SOUTH
(35) Muncy, Raymond Lee.
"Restitution and the Communal Impulse in America." Restoration
(36) Murch, James DeForest. Christians
Only. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1962.
(37) Murrell, Arthur V. "The
Effects of Exclusivism in the Separation of the Churches of
(38) Phillips, Myer. "A
Historical Study of the Attitude of the Churches of Christ toward
(39) Scarboro, Charles Allen.
"A Sectarian Religious Organization in Heterogeneous
(40) Sechler, Earl T. Our
Religious Heritage: Church History of the Ozarks, 1806-1906.
(41) Spencer, Justina K., comp. A
Synoptic History (One Half Century) of the Christian
(42) Tiffin, Gerald C. "The
Interaction of the Bible College Movement and the Independent
(43) Tucker, William, and Lester
G. McAllister. Journey in Faith: A History of the Christian
(44) VanKirk, Hiram. The Rise
of the Current Reformation: or, A Study in the History of
(45) Webb, Henry E.
"Sectional Conflict and Schism within the Disciples of
Christ Following the
(46) West, Earl I. Search for
the Ancient Order. 3 vols. 1, Nashville: Gospel Advocate,
(47) Zenor, Charles W. "A
History of Biblical Interpretation in the Church of Christ:
II. THE CAMPBELLITE AND RESTORATIONIST TRADITIONS IN THE SOUTH: STATE AND LOCAL STUDIES
(48) Barber, William J. The
Disciples' Assemblies of Eastern North Carolina. St. Louis:
(49) Boren, Carter E. Religion
on the Texas Frontier. San Antonio: Naylor, 1968.
(50) Brinson, Marion B., et al.,
eds. A Century with Christ: A Story of the Christian Church in
(51) Cannon, John H., Jr. Where
There Is Vision: A History of the Lamar Avenue Church of
283 CAMPBELLITE AND RESTORATIONIST TRADITIONS
(52) Casey, Mike. "An Era of
Controversy and Division: The Origins of the Broadway Church of
(53) Cramblet, Wilbur H. The
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in West Virginia: A
(54) Dains, Mary K.
"Alexander Campbell and the Missouri Disciples of
(55) Darst, H. Jackson. Ante-Bellum
Virginia Disciples: An Account of the Emergence and
(56) Eckstein, Stephen D. History
of the Churches of Christ in Texas, 1824-1950. Austin: Firm
(57) England, Stephen J. Oklahoma
Christians: A History of Christian Churches and of the
(58) Fortune, Alonzo W. The
Disciples in Kentucky. Lexington: Convention of the Christian
(59) Haley, Thomas P. Historical
and Biblical Sketches of the Early Churches and Pioneer
(60) Hall, Colby D. Texas
Disciples. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press,
(61) Harmon, Marion F. A
History of the Christian Churches in Mississippi. Aberdeen
(62) Harrell, David E.,
Jr. "The Disciples of Christ and Social Forces in Tennessee,
1865- 1900. "
(63) Hawley, Monroe E.
"Controversy in St. Louis." Restoration Quarterly 27
(64) Haymes, Don.
"Hall Calhoun and His 'Nashville Brethren,' 1897-1935."
(65) Hodge, Frederick A. The
Plea and the Pioneers in Virginia: A History of the Rise and
(66) Hooper, Robert E. A
Call to Remember: Chapters in Nashville Restoration History.
(67) Hughes, Richard T., et al. Called
to Serve: A Biography of the South National Church of
(68) Lucas, Charles H.
"History of the Church of Christ in Mississippi." M.A.
(69) McPherson, Chalmers. Disciples
of Christ in Texas. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1920.
284 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELIGION IN THE SOUTH
(70) Moseley, Joseph E. Disciples
of Christ in Georgia. St. Louis: Bethany Press, 1954.
(71) Nance, Ellwood C. Florida
Christians: Disciples of Christ. Winter Park FL: The College
(72) Norton, Herman A. Tennessee
Christians: A History of the Christian Church (Disciples
(73) Nunnelly, Donald A.
"The Disciples of Christ in Alabama, 1860-1910." M.A.
(74) Peters, George L. The
Disciples of Christ in Missouri: Celebrating One Hundred Years
(75) Pierson, Roscoe M. The
Disciples of Christ in Kentucky: A Finding List of the Histories
(76) Sechler, Earl. Brief
History of Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ) in Cedar
(77) __________. History of
Dade County, Missouri, Christian Churches, 1839-1958.
(78) __________. History of
Hickory County, Missouri, Christian Churches (Disciples of
(79) Ware, Charles C. Hookerton
History. Wilson NC: By the author, 1960.
(80) __________. Pamlico
Profile. Wilson NC: By the author, 1961.
(81) __________. North
Carolina Disciples of Christ: A History of Their Rise and
(82) __________. Rountree
Chronicle, 1827-1840: Documentary Primer of a Tar Heel
(83) __________. South
Carolina Disciples of Christ: A History. Charleston:
(84) Watson, George H., and
Mildred B. Watson. History of the Christian Churches in the
(85) Wilson, Michael L. "A
History of the Church of Christ in Little Rock, Arkansas,
(86) Woodson, William E. "An
Analytical History of Churches of Christ in Tennessee
(87) __________. Standing for
Their Faith: A History of Churches of Christ in Tennessee,
285 CAMPBELLITE AND RESTORATIONIST TRADITION
(88) Boles, H. Leo. Biographical
Sketches of Gospel Preachers. Nashville: Gospel Advocate,
(89) Brewer, G. C. Autobiography
of G. C. Brewer. Murfreesboro TN: Dehoff Publications,
(90) Campbell, Alexander, ed. Memoirs
of Elder Thomas Campbell, Together with a Brief
(91) Choate, Julian E. The
Anchor That Holds: A Biography of Benton Cordell Goodpasture.
(92) __________. Roll, Jordan,
Roll: A Biography of Marshall Keeble. Nashville: Gospel
(93) Gresham, Perry E., ed. The
Sage of Bethany. St. Louis: Bethany Press, 1960.
(94) Hanna, William H. Thomas
Campbell: Seceder and Christian Union Advocate. Cincinnati:
(95) Hooper, Robert E. Crying
in the Wilderness: A Biography of David Lipscomb. Nashville:
(96) Hopson, Ella Lord. Memoirs
of Dr. Winthrop Hartly Hopson. Cincinnati: Standard
(97) Kellems, Jesse R. Alexander
Campbell and the Disciples. New York: R. R. Smith, 1930.
(98) Lunger, Harold L. The
Political Ethics of Alexander Campbell. St. Louis: Bethany
(99) McAllister, Lester G. Thomas
Campbell: Man of the Book. St. Louis: Bethany Press, 1954.
(100) __________. Z. T.
Sweeney: Preacher and Peacemaker. St. Louis: Christian Board
(101) Morrison, John L.
"Alexander Campbell: Freedom Fighter of the Middle
(102) __________. "Alexander
Campbell: Moral Educator of the Middle Frontier." In West
(103) __________. "The
Centrality of the Bible in Alexander Campbell's Thought and Life.
(104) __________. "A
Rational Voice Crying in an Emotional Wilderness." West
(105) Morrison, Matthew C. Like
a Lion: Daniel Sommer's Seventy Years of Preaching.
(106) Pearson, Samuel C., Jr.
"Rationalist in an Age of Enthusiasm: The Anomalous Career
286 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELIGION IN THE SOUTH
(107) Powell, James M., and Mary
Nelle Hardeman Powers. N. B. H.: A Biography of Nicholas
(108) Richardson, Robert. Memoirs
of Alexander Campbell. 2 vols. Philadelphia: J. B.
(109) Robinson, John L. David
Lipscomb: Journalist in Texas, 1872. Wichita Falls: Nortex,
(110) Sechler, Earl T. Four
Women Pastors of Missouri Christian Churches. Appleton City
(111) __________. Sadie McCoy
Crank (1863-1948): Pioneer Woman Preacher in the
(112) Tant, Fanning Yater. J.
D. TantTexas Preacher: A Biography. Lufkin TX: Gospel
(113) Tucker, William E. J. H.
Garrison and the Disciples of Christ. St. Louis: Bethany
(114) West, Earl. Life and
Times of David Lipscomb. Henderson TN: Religious Book
(115) West, John W., comp. Sketches
of Our Mountain Pioneers. Lynchburg VA: J. W. West,
(116) Wilburn, James R. The
Hazard of the Die: Tolbert Fanning and the Restoration
(117) Woehrmann, Paul, ed.
"The Autobiography of Abraham Snethen, Frontier